Inventor and Designer of Postural Control Insoles

Unleveling of Pupils - sign of sphenoid torsion

Foot to Sphenoid Link (Research Project Concluded 2015)

Pure Ascending Postural Distortion Pattern

     Rothbart BA 2006. Relationship of Functional Leg-Length Discrepancy to Abnormal Pronation. Journal American Podiatric Medical Association;96(6):499-507
     Rothbart BA 2008.  Vertical Facial Dimensions Linked to Abnormal Foot Motion. Journal American Podiatric Medical Association, 98(3):01-08, May.

     Rothbart BA 2013. Prescriptive Insoles and Dental Orthotics Change the Frontal Plane Position of the Atlas (C1), Mastoid, Malar, Temporal and Sphenoid Bones: A Preliminary Study. Journal of Cranio Manidibular and Sleep Practice, Vol 31(4):300-308.

Abnormal Pronation resulting from either a Rothbarts Foot or PreClinical Clubfoot Deformity can result in a sphenoid torsion (unleveling of the pupils)

Abnormal Pronation Pattern:  Left > Right

  • Drives the left Innominate bone anteriorly (forward relative to right Innominate bone)  Rothbart, 2006
  • Anterior rotation of the left innominate bone drives the left temporal bone posteriorly (relative to the right temporal bone)  Rothbart 2008
  • Posterior rotation of the left temporal bone flexes and rotates the sphenoid clockwise (e.g., left sphenoid torsion)  Rothbart 2013

See animation below

Ascending Sphenoid Torsion

  • 1st photo: As a baby (pre and early ambulation):  sphenoid is level (pupils level)
  • 2nd photo: Infancy:  gravity drive pronation (left > right) pulls the sphenoid into a Left Sphenoid Torsion (left pupil higher than right pupil)
  • 3rd photo: Proprioceptive therapy partially reverses the left sphenoid torsion (pupil more level)

Proprioceptive therapy does not reverse the longitudinal shaping of the cranium