The table below outlines approximate windows of time (critical periods) in which congenital foot abnormalities can developl
In general, the congenital foot abnormality is
More severe if:
Less severe if:
Critical Periods that can lead to developmental abnormalities in the feet
Forefoot Varum - Fact or Fiction
The Key to Understanding
Forefoot Varum (metatarsals 1-5 are structurally twised relative to the posterior bisection of the heel bone) -
Fact or Fiction: An extensive review of the literature refutes or questions the very existence of this type of foot structure
Forefoot varus has been a mainstay of podiatric theory and practice for the last three decades or so. Although accepted absolutely as a genuine and relatively common foot deformity, the basis for its aetiology, diagnosis and perhaps even its very existence has never been clearly defined.
This review paper examines in detail two aspects of forefoot varus to see if evidence may be established to support or refute its existence: its supposed aetiology and the currently accepted basis for its diagnosis.
The essential conclusions of this work are that the accepted aetiology is without foundation anywhere in the literature and that the methodology used in establishing its presence, and thus reach a diagnosis, is fundamentally flawed. Thus the very existence of the condition forefoot varus is in considerable doubt.
From an embryological point of view, this foot structure can not exist.
Kidd R 1997. Forefoot Varus - Real or False, Fact or Fantasy. Australian Jour Pod Med; 31(3).
Cephalad to Supinatus - Embryogenesis