Inventor and Designer of Postural Control Insoles

The table below outlines approximate windows of time (critical periods) in which congenital foot abnormalities can develop

In general, the congenital foot abnormality is

More severe if:

  • The torsional ontogenesis stops during the embryonic stages of development

Less severe if:

  • The torsional ontogenesis stops during the fetal period of development

Critical Periods that can lead to developmental abnormalities in the feet

Forefoot Varum - Fact or Fiction

Critical Periods

Forefoot Varum (metatarsals 1-5 are structurally twisted relative to the posterior bisection of the heel bone) -

Fact or Fiction: An extensive review of the literature refutes or questions the very existence of this type of foot structure


Forefoot varus has been a mainstay of podiatric theory and practice for the last three decades or so.  Although accepted absolutely as a genuine and relatively common foot deformity, the basis for its aetiology, diagnosis and perhaps even its very existence has never been clearly defined. 

This review paper examines in detail two aspects of forefoot varus to see if evidence may be established to support or refute its existence: its supposed aetiology and the currently accepted basis for its diagnosis. 

The essential conclusions of this work are that the accepted aetiology is without foundation anywhere in the literature and that the methodology used in establishing its presence, and thus reach a diagnosis, is fundamentally flawed.  Thus the very existence of the condition forefoot varus is in considerable doubt.


From an embryological point of view, this foot structure cannot exist.


     Kidd R 1997. Forefoot Varus - Real or False, Fact or Fantasy. Australian Jour Pod Med; 31(3).


The Key to Understanding the etiology of abnormal foot structures

Cephalad to Supinatus - Embryogenesis