References:‚Äč

   Rothbart BA, 2002. Medial Column Foot Systems: An Innovative Tool for Improving Posture. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies (6)1:37-46

   Lovett RM. 1905 The Mechanism of the Normal Spine and Its Relation to Scoliosis. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol CLIII, No 3.

   Rothbart BA 2008.  Vertical Facial Dimensions Linked to Abnormal Foot Motion. Journal American Podiatric Medical Association, 98(3):01-08, May.

   Rothbart BA 2006. Relationship of Functional Leg-Length Discrepancy to Abnormal Pronation. Journal American Podiatric Medical Association;96(6):499-507

   Rothbart BA 2013. Prescriptive Insoles and Dental Orthotics Change the Frontal Plane Position of the Atlas (C1), Mastoid, Malar, Temporal and Sphenoid Bones: A Preliminary Study. Journal of Cranio Manidibular and Sleep Practice, Vol 31(4):300-308.

    Costa HN, Slavicek, R and Sato S 2012.  A computerized tomography study of the morphological interrelationship between the temporal bones and the craniofacial complex.  Journal of Anatomy, Vol 220:6;544-554. June.


Frontal Plane Postural Analysis

Anterior Innominate rotation

  • Knee hyperextension
  • Increased lumbar lordosis
  • Weak abdominal muscles
  • External (Posterior) rotation Temporal Bones

Functional Leg Length Discrepancy occurs with asymmetrical abnormal foot pronation (Rothbart 2006)  

Two of the most common foot structures that result in abnormal foot pronation are

  • (1) Rothbarts Foot and
  • (2) PreClinical Clubfoot Deformity

Ascending Pure Postural Models -salient findings from my research between 2002 - 2013

Reciprocity between the innominate bones and the temporal bones


  • Anterior rotation of the innominate bone can drive the temporal bone into an posterior (external) rotation (Rothbart, 2006).  This Ascending Postural Distortional Pattern is initiated by abnormal pronation in the feet.
  • Posterior (external) rotation of the temporal bone can drive the innominate bone into an anterior rotation (Lovett, 1905).  This Descending Postural Distortional Pattern is initiated by cranial pathomechanics.
  • In a computerized tomography study of the morphological, Costa et al demonstrated a direct relationhip between the sagittal plane position of the temporal bones and contouring of the craniofacial complex. Specifically, they found that the sagittal plane inclination of the temporal bones was linked to the anterior - posterior positioning of the mandible and maxilla.
  • I have linked foot twist to changes in the sagittal plane (External Rotation) of the temporal bones (Rothbart, 2008).  External Rotation of the Temporal Bones drives the Sphenoid in Extension.  This narrows the Curve of Spee and drives the mandible forward (Class II Occlusion).  This has been the conclusion in my previous research linking a Class II occlusion to Rothbarts Foot.

Sagittal Plane Postural Analysis

Ascending Postural Distortional Model (Rothbart 2002)

  • (1) abnormal right foot pronation
  • (2) drives the right innominate into anterior rotation, which
  • (3) drives the right temporal bone into posterior (external) rotation (clinically observed as a decrease in the Facial Vertical height

Postural Analysis (See Animation above)

  • Abnormal pronation - Right > Left
  • Anterior rotation of Innominates - Right > Left 
  • Short Right leg
  • Standing - Pelvis tilts right

Coupling of Temporal to Sphenoid -  

  • External (posterior) Temporal  Rotation 
  • Sphenoid Extension  
  • Long and Narrow cranium (see Photo above)